Wednesday, June 27, 2012

A to Z linux commands


Here are some linux commands for you so you can make your hands more and more dirty with ubuntu terminal.

mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem

mknod Make block or character special files
more Display output one screen at a time

mount Mount a file system

mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files

mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)

mv Move or rename files or directories

adduser Add a user to the system

addgroup Add a group to the system

alias Create an alias •

apropos Search Help manual pages (man -k)

apt-get Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)

aptitude Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)

aspell Spell Checker

awk Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
b
basename Strip directory and suffix from filenames
bash GNU Bourne-Again SHell
bc Arbitrary precision calculator language
bg Send to background
break Exit from a loop •

builtin Run a shell builtin

bzip2 Compress or decompress named file(s)
c
cal Display a calendar
case Conditionally perform a command

cat Display the contents of a file

cd Change Directory

cfdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux

chgrp Change group ownership

chmod Change access permissions

chown Change file owner and group

chroot Run a command with a different root directory

chkconfig System services (runlevel)

cksum Print CRC checksum and byte counts
clear Clear terminal screen

cmp Compare two files

comm Compare two sorted files line by line
command Run a command – ignoring shell functions •
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop •

cp Copy one or more files to another location

cron Daemon to execute scheduled commands

crontab Schedule a command to run at a later time

csplit Split a file into context-determined pieces

cut Divide a file into several parts
d
date Display or change the date & time

dc Desk Calculator

dd Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records

ddrescue Data recovery tool
declare Declare variables and give them attributes •

df Display free disk space

diff Display the differences between two files

diff3 Show differences among three files

dig DNS lookup

dir Briefly list directory contents

dircolors Colour setup for `ls’

dirname Convert a full pathname to just a path

dirs Display list of remembered directories

dmesg Print kernel & driver messages

du Estimate file space usage
e
echo Display message on screen •

egrep Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression

eject Eject removable media

enable Enable and disable builtin shell commands •

env Environment variables

ethtool Ethernet card settings

eval Evaluate several commands/arguments

exec Execute a command

exit Exit the shell
expect Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
expand Convert tabs to spaces
export Set an environment variable
expr Evaluate expressions
f
false Do nothing, unsuccessfully

fdformat Low-level format a floppy disk

fdisk Partition table manipulator for Linux

fg Send job to foreground

fgrep Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
file Determine file type
find Search for files that meet a desired criteria

fmt Reformat paragraph text
fold Wrap text to fit a specified width.
for Expand words , and execute commands
format Format disks or tapes
free Display memory usage

fsck File system consistency check and repair

ftp File Transfer Protocol
function Define Function Macros

fuser Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file


g
gawk Find and Replace text within file(s)
getopts Parse positional parameters
grep Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
groups Print group names a user is in
gzip Compress or decompress named file(s)
h
hash Remember the full pathnameof a name argument
head Output the first part of file(s)
help Display help for a built-in command •
history Command History
hostname Print or set system name
i
id Print user and group id’s
if Conditionally perform a command
ifconfig Configure a network interface
ifdown Stop a network interface
ifup Start a network interface up
import Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install Copy files and set attributes
j
jobs List active jobs •
join Join lines on a common field
k
kill Stop a process from running
killall Kill processes by name
l
less Display output one screen at atime
let Perform arithmetic on shell variables •
ln Make links between files
local Create variables •
locate Find files
logname Print current login name
logout Exit a login shell •
look Display lines beginning with a given string
lpc Line printer control program
lpr Off line print
lprint Print a file
lprintd Abort a print job
lprintq List the print queue
lprm Remove jobs from the print queue
ls List information about file(s)
lsof List open files
m
make Recompile a group of programs
man Help manual
mkdir Create new folder(s)
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mmv Mass Move and rename (files)
n
netstat Networking information
nice Set the priority of a commandor job
nl Number lines and write files
nohup Run a command immune to hangups
Notify-send Send desktop notifications
nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively
o
open Open a file in its default application
op Operator access
p
passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Stop processes from running
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data •
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current directory
pwd Print Working Directory
q
quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usage
quotactl Set disk quotas
r
ram ram disk device
rcp Copy files between two machines
read Read a line from standard input •
readarray Read from stdin into anarray variable •
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice Alter priority of running processes
remsync Synchronize remote filesvia email
return Exit a shell function
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
s
screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file `.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file
suspend Suspend execution of this shell..
symlink Make a new name for a file

sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
t
tail Output the last part of files
tar Tape ARchiver
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command •
u
ulimit Limit user resources •
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias •
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scaleto another
unset Remove variable or functionnames
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
useradd Create new user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created byuuencode
v
v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
w
watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
which Search the user’s $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
Wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user
x
xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in theuser’s preferred application.
yes Print a string until interrupted
. Run a command script in the current shell

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3 comments:

Anonymous said...

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